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california tobacco control branch

CTCB Peer-Reviewed Publications​​

Are California’s Local Flavored Tobacco Sales Restrictions Effective in Reducing the Retail Availability of Flavored Tobacco Products? A Multicomponent Evaluation (2021)

This paper describes evaluation results of California’s early ordinances restricting flavored tobacco sales, which resulted in a nine-fold increase in the proportion of California’s population covered by a flavored tobacco ordinance between April 2015 and January 2019. In addition to reporting on policy tracking, the studies assessed retail availability and advertising of flavored tobacco products, as well as retailer attitudes and ease of compliance.

Impact of California’s tobacco and cannabis policies on the retail availability of little cigars/cigarillos and blunt wraps (2021)

Recent changes in California’s tobacco and cannabis policies could impact the retail availability of little cigars/cigarillos (LCCs) and blunt wraps that are used for blunt smoking. This study was intended to test whether tobacco flavor bans and minimum pack sizes of LCCs have reduced tobacco availability in California jurisdictions, whereas, permissive policies on sales and marketing of cannabis increased availability. This study concluded that a tobacco flavor ban may be an effective strategy to reduce retail availability of LCCs, blunt wraps and possibly other tobacco in California jurisdictions.

The changing retail landscape for tobacco: dollar stores and the availability of cheap cigarettes among tobacco-related priority populations (2021)

This study sought to examine whether dollar stores are more likely to be located in disadvantaged neighborhoods and whether dollar stores charge less for cigarettes than other tobacco retailers. It found that dollar stores may exacerbate smoking-related inequities by contributing to the availability of cheaper cigarettes in neighborhoods that are lower income, rural and have greater proportions of youth.

Impact of Local Flavored Tobacco Sales Restrictions on Policy-Related Attitudes and Tobacco Product Access (2021)

To evaluate the impact of local ordinances restricting the sale of flavored tobacco, this study surveyed California youth and young adults regarding policy support and perceived access to flavored tobacco. With some exceptions, these findings demonstrate that among vape users in policy jurisdictions and priority subgroups, there is a higher likelihood of reporting perceived difficulty to access flavored tobacco products.

Implementation of a comprehensive flavoured tobacco product sales restriction and retail tobacco sales (2021)

This study evaluates associations of policy implementation with changes in tobacco sales in San Francisco and in two California cities without any sales restriction. San Francisco’s comprehensive restriction virtually eliminated flavoured tobacco sales and decreased total tobacco sales in mainstream retailers.

Vaping identity in adolescent e-cigarette users: A comparison of norms, attitudes, and behaviors (2021)

This study analyzed differences in demographic characteristics, beliefs, and behaviors of vapers and non-vapers.

Sources of flavoured e-cigarettes among California youth and young adults: associations with local flavoured tobacco sales restrictions (2021)

This study compares access to flavoured JUUL and other e-cigarettes from retail, online and social sources among underage and young adult e-cigarette users who live in California jurisdictions that restrict sales of flavoured tobacco with the rest of the state.

Characteristics of E-cigarette, or Vaping, Products Confiscated in Public High Schools in California and North Carolina (2020)

This is a study exploring e-cigarette, or vaping, products used on school grounds. CDC conducted an environmental assessment in California and North Carolina public high schools in March and May 2019.

Tobacco use and tobacco services in California substance use treatment programs (2020)

This study examines smoking prevalence among persons enrolled in substance use dependence treatment programs, and whether persons who wanted help with quitting smoking received such help.


Retail Tobacco Marketing in Rural Versus Nonrural Counties: Product Availability, Discounts, and Prices, 2020

A study investigating tobacco product availability, advertised discounts, and prices in rural and nonrural stores.


Trends in Lung Cancer and Cigarette Smoking: California Compared to the Rest of the United States (2019)

 A study that examines  smoking behavior (initiation, intensity, and quitting) in California and the rest of United States to inform lung cancer trends.


Mind the Gap: Changes in Cigarette Prices after California's Tax Increase, 2019

A study evaluating California’s 2017 cigarette tax increase, which found that it was not passed onto consumers equally.

Assessment of Underage Sales Violations in Tobacco Stores and Vape Shops, 2019

A study investigating compliance to tobacco age-of-sale law and ID verification among youth-accessible retailers that sell tobacco in 2018.


Evaluation of California's 'Tobacco 21' law, 2018

A study that describes the T21 evaluation plan and initial evaluation results for California's law that raised the minimum tobacco sales age to 21 and expanded the definition of tobacco to include electronic smoking devices.


Evaluation of the Tobacco-Use Prevention Education (TUPE) program in California, 2018

A study examining the California's Tobacco-Use Prevention Education (TUPE) program through evaluating the association between TUPE funding and tobacco prevention activities and tobacco use prevalence.

A study that examines neighborhood variation in prices for the cheapest cigarettes including a popular brand of cigarillos and health disparities with results from the Healthy Stores for a Healthy Community survey in a large statewide sample of licensed tobacco retailers in a low-tax state.

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